Second Chinese Civil War
Part of the Great Interlude
Date March 3, 2003 - June 1, 2016
(13 years, 2 months, 30 days)
Location China, Tibet, Mongolia
Causes - Political corruption
- Human rights abuses
- Economic & social isolation
- Assassination of Rong Yiren
Republican Victory
- Establishment of the CSR
- Independence of Tibet
- Dissolution of the UNSMC
People's United Front
PRC-Flag Xining Army Group

MC-Flag Maoist Cliques
MongolPR-Flag Second Mongolian PR

Supported by:
NKorea-Flag North Korea (2003-2005)
UN-FlagOld International Volunteers

Republican Forces
CSR-Flag CSR (2013-2016)

Taipei (2004-2013)
Chengdu (2003-2013)

Mongolia-Flag Mongol Republican Army

Supported by:
USA-Flag51 United States (2005-2016)
EU-NormalFlag European Union (2009-2016)
Japan-Flag Japan (2010-2016)
UN-FlagOld International Volunteers

Separatist Forces
Gansu-Flag Gansu (2006)
Guangdong-Flag Guangdong (2007)
Hainan-Flag Hainan (2005)
Hui-Flag Hui (2013)
Kashgar-Flag Kashgar (2005)
Manchuria-Flag Manchuria (2009)
FreeMongolia-Flag Mongolia (2009)
Qinghai-Flag Qinghai (2014)
Tibet-Flag Tibet
Uyghuristan-Flag Uyghuristan (2016)
Yunnan-Flag Yunnan (2008)
UN-FlagOld International Volunteers
PRC-Flag Li Peng †
PRC-Flag Zhang Wannian †
PRC-Flag Chi Haotian
PRC-Flag Chang Wanquan
PRC-Flag Zhao Zongqi (XAG)

MC-Flag Ren Gengxin
MC-Flag Quan Xiuying
MC-Flag Xue Ruogang †
MongolPR-Flag Nambaryn Enkhbayar

NKorea-Flag Kim Jong-Il
NKorea-Flag Pak Jong-chon

CSR-Flag Eric Chu
CSR-Flag Chang San-cheng

Mongolia-Flag Mendsaikhany Enkhsaikhan †

USA-Flag51 Jeb Bush
USA-Flag51 Al Gore
USA-Flag51 Colin Powell
EU-NormalFlag Nico Lorenz
Japan-Flag Junichiro Koizumi

Gansu-Flag Lu Hao
Guangdong-Flag Meng Liuxian †
Hainan-Flag Chang Zemin
Hui-Flag Liu Hui
Kashgar-Flag Chen Quanguo †
Manchuria-Flag Bai Zhihao
FreeMongolia-Flag Tsakhia Elbegdorj
Qinghai-Flag Cao Guanting †
Tibet-Flag Tenzing Jigme †
Uyghuristan-Flag Mehmet Emin Hazret
Yunnan-Flag Hu Xue †
PRC-Flag 2,550,000
75,000 (XAG)

MC-Flag 280,000
MongolPR-Flag 57,000

NKorea-Flag 25,000
UN-FlagOld 17,500

Total: 3,004,500

CSR-Flag 2,125,000

Mongolia-Flag 65,000

USA-Flag51 1,500
EU-NormalFlag 750
Japan-Flag 200
UN-FlagOld 150,000

Total: 2,342,450

~5-7 million (including UN-FlagOld Volunteers)
Casualties and losses
1,320,000 dead
1,290,000 wounded or captured

Total: 2,610,000

1,540,000 dead
290,000 wounded or captured

Total: 1,830,000

~1-3 million killed
2-3 million wounded or captured

Total: 3-6 million

Civilian casualties: ~25.3 million

The Second Chinese Civil War was a multi-sided civil war fought between the People's Republic of China (PRC), led by President Li Peng, along with domestic and foreign allies, and various domestic and foreign forces (primarily the Chinese Second Republic) which opposed both the PRC and each other in various combinations. With casualties totaling between 26 and 35 million, it is the deadliest conflict of the 21st century and the deadliest conflict since the end of World War II.

The unrest in China grew out of growing discontent with the Chinese government and escalated into armed conflict after calls for political and social reforms were violently suppressed and information pertaining to widespread human rights abuses in Tibet, Uyghuristan, and Mongolia were released to the Chinese public. The war, beginning on March 3, 2003 with major unrest across Southern China, was fought by several factions: The People's Liberation Army and it's allies (mainly a loose alliance of Agrarian socialist cliques), a coalition of various republican groups (which later merged into the Chinese Second Republic in 2013), and a variety of separatist forces formed around several local ethnic groups and regions.

Several nations throughout East Asia and beyond were involved in military actions during the civil war. While internationally isolated, the People's Republic of China had received limited military support from North Korea before the Second Korean War. Meanwhile, a large US-led coalition had provided financial & political support to republican forces from around 2000, and had provided limited military support (in the form of airstrikes, cyberattacks, and military aid) from 2005 until the end of the civil war in 2016. A variety of volunteers from different nations were involved in aiding all sides, with some estimates saying around 200,000 unaffiliated troops were involved.

A hallmark of the civil war was one of the first uses of nuclear weapons in warfare of World War II and, to date, the last use of nuclear warfare in modern history. The detonation of a 4.25 megaton nuclear weapon near the town of Ankang resulted in nearly 18,000 immediate civilian deaths and 135,000 immediate injuries, with an estimate 1.2 million further casualties as a result of illness, famine, etc.

The Second Chinese Civil War would end on June 1, 2016 following the assassination of President Li Peng by his Vice President, Chang Wanquan, and the subsequent breakdown and surrender of PRC forces.

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